PRETAL – Preoccupation/Prejudice/Perception/Premature evaluation, Rehearsal, Emotional reaction/Expectation (false assumption), Taboos/Too many questions, Anxiety, Language (culture)


PET – Physical, Emotional, Time

Clients and counsellors NOT friends…must retain objectivity

Carkhuff Core Conditions

GREN – Genuineness, Respect, Empathy, Non-possessive warmth

SICC – Self-Disclosure, Immediacy, Confrontation, Concreteness

Corey & his 5 Principles re: Therapeutic Boundaries

FANBJ – Fidelity (honest & committed to progress), Autonomy (deter client dependence / be ethical), Non-maleficence (doing no harm / conflict of interest), Beneficence (promoting good for client), Justice (equal & fair irrespective of client status)



Co-Dependence (both trapped)

Inter-Dependence (healthy)

Dependence (one dependent)

Independence (autonomous)


CCHWP – Courage, Confidentiality, Humility, Well-being, Professional standards

Frame of Reference

Entering the client frame of reference = Empathy (one of Rogers’ three core conditions…the other two being Congruence & Unconditional Positive Regard). Counsellor responses around feeling, emotion & intensity level are typically:

As I understand it…

If I’m hearing you correctly…

What I hear you saying is…

I sense that you may be feeling…

You seem to place a high value on…

You appear to be feeling…

As I am hearing it…

You must have felt…

Listening to you, it seems as if…

Hands-off / Less Prescriptive (Client-focused)

SLRC – Sit, Listen, Reflect, Clarify

Helping Types

CAPC – Counselling (client searches inner self), Advice giving (CBT / solution-based therapy), Pastoral care (school help away from normal pedagogy), Coaching (clubs / teams etc)

Johari Window

OBHU – Open (well-known), Blind (others aware), Hidden (concealed self), Unknown (not known / hypothetical)

Learning Outcomes

FEBS – Focus/Feedback, Ethics/Empathy, Boundaries, Self-Awareness/Skills

Physically Attending (minimal encouragers)

KPN – Kinesics (body language), Proxemics (spatial distance), Non-verbal cues (‘Mmmm’, Nod, Smile)


CREWP – Compassion, Respect, Experience, Wisdom, Patience


MPS – Matching/Mirroring, Paraphrasing, Summarising


VINAC – Values, Intimacy, Needs, Alienation, Caring


BEARTS – Boundaries, Empathy, Active Listening, Reflecting, Timekeeping, Silence


> Sitting squarely (& at 90 degrees), Open posture, Leaning Forward, Eye Contact, Relaxed


CCEC – Condensing or Crystallising the Essence of what the Client has said or is feeling