Terminology / Glossary


Acceptance (respect and non-possessive warmth or unconditional positive regard [UPR])

Active Listening (help clients feel heard and understood)

Blind Spot (Johari Window: something ‘not known to self’, but ‘known to others’)

Corey’s 5 principles re: therapeutic boundaries (Beneficence, Non-maleficence, Autonomy, Justice, Fidelity)

Family Scripts (standards and norms within a family / how a person was raised)

Immediacy (feedback on how you are experiencing the client)

Imposter Syndrome (the fear of being found out / inability to internalise accomplishments)

Inter-Personal Influence (manipulating others)

Pedagogy (Control)

Phenomenology (beyond empathy / perceived by consciousness)

Reality Trigger (being aware of one’s limits of ability)

Self-Disclosure (sharing information – Yalom interestingly and insightfully touches on three different types: The Mechanism of Therapy (be transparent); Revealing Here-and-Now Feelings (use discretion); Revealing the Therapist’s Personal Life (use caution)

Staying in the Grey Area (the counsellor keeping an open mind)

Transactional Analysis (conflict between inner parent [anger] and child [anxiety])

Transference (communication between client and counsellor / unconscious projections that clients bring to their therapist and other relationships)


ABC Model (Activating Event, Belief, Consequences)


BOOST (Balanced, Observed, Objective, Specific, Timely)

Boundaries – disclosure, cut things short, no empathy (shocked), wrong agenda, no confidentiality, socialising, wrong research (snooping), malpractice, lack of respect, no timekeeping/space, assuming, directive, outside ability, relationship


Core Conditions


Conflict of Interest / Doing No Harm

Dependency – Co-Dependency (both trapped), Inter-Dependence (healthy), Dependence (one dependent), Independence (autonomous actions)

Dewey (John) & Critical Thinking

Dimensions (3) of Change – Self, Relationships, Personal History

DNA – client ‘Did Not Arrive’

Ego – Mediator between ID & Super-ego…uses logic and reason. ID=Instinctual part of mind/pleasure principle. Super-Ego=Right and sensible/checks risk/acts as a censor to ID.

Empathy vs. Sympathy

Erikson’s Stages of Human Development


Feedback Sandwich

Freud Consciousness (3 layers: Metaphor of the Mind – Conscious (Thoughts, Perceptions), Pre-Conscious (Memories, Knowledge), Unconscious (Fears, Desires, Motives, Urges, Irrational, Needs, Experience))

Jobs – typical jobs in this area: Care Assistant, Key Worker, Support Worker, Counsellor/Therapist, Psychologist, Psychiatrist

Karpman’s Drama Triangle – ROLES: Persecutor (identifies as victim / denial / blaming tactics), Victim (accepts definition / anxiety / needs taking care of), Rescuer (should knock the crutch away / needs victim to feel important / has ‘all the answers’)

Kinesics – study of the way in which certain body movements and gestures serve as a form of non-verbal communication

Limits of Ability – Use core conditions, Stay with feelings, Trust the process, Work in a safe way

Listening – physically attending (body), keeping an open mind (suspend judgement), thinking ahead (assumptions), checking it out (paraphrases), ‘Between the lines’ (way things are said / feelings), rehearsal (lines too keen to feedback to client), summarising (main points / chunks / session conclusion)

Martyrs / Victims

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Matching & Mirroring

Minimal Encouragers

Non-Verbal Messages

Open / Closed Questions – 5xW+H, ‘Do you think…?’

Paraphrasing (“checking it out”) – unpack feelings / re-order words

Personal Awareness

Proxemics – the branch of knowledge that deals with the amount of space that people feel it necessary to set between themselves and others

Reflecting – types: Matching/Mirroring, Paraphrasing, Summarising

Responses (empathy) – As I understand it, If I’m hearing you correctly, What I hear you saying, I sense that you may be feeling, You seem to place a high value on, You appear to be feeling, As I am hearing it, You must have felt…


Self-Awareness – attribute of emotional intelligence (needs/wants, caring, competence, emotions, intimacy, rejection/alienation, inter-personal influence, mutuality, relationships, values)




Therapy (types)

Valuing Clients – ‘as human beings of worth’